Шпаргалка по английскому языку

Шпаргалка по английскому языку

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  1. The Noun: categories of case, gender, classification, functional feature.

Noun combines with preceding adjective, with following adjective, with  preceding noun, with  verb following it or preceding it. It is typical of noun to be preceded by definite or indefinite article. Noun may be subject or predicative of  sentence, or  object, attribute, and adverbial modifier. Nouns fall into several subclasses: 1. proper and common; 2. animate and inanimate. Animate nouns in their turn fall into human and non-human. 3. countable and uncountable. All nouns can be classified into: simple, derived; compound and composite. There are 6 cases: 1. Agentive Case; 2. Instrumental case; 3. Dative Case; 4. Factitive Case; 5. Locative Case; 6. Objective case. case category in English is realized through opposition: Common Case :: Possessive Case. scope of meanings rendered by Genitive Case: 1. Possessive Genitive, 2. Subjective Genitive, 3. Objective Genitive, 4. Genitive of origin, 5. Descriptive Genitive 6. Genitive of measure, partitive genitive 7. Appositive genitive. In present-day English there are morphemes which present differences between masculine and feminine. Only limited number of words are marked as belonging to masculine, feminine or neuter.

  1. The Verb: notion, categories, function, and classification.

Verb possesses grammatical meaning of verbiality — ability to denote process developing in time. Verbs are connected with preceding noun and with following noun . They are also connected with adverbs. According to their stem-types all verbs fall into: simple , soundreplacive , stress-replacive , expanded — built with help of suffixes and prefixes , composite — , phrasal . regular and irregular.  verbs fall into transitive and intransitive.  verbs fall into stative and dynamic.  all verbs fall into finite and non-finite. verbs can be notional, semi-notional , auxiliaries. category of person is represented in English by twomember opposition: third person singular vs. non-third person singular. opposition is privative. category of number is two-member opposition: singular and plural. An interesting feature of this category is that it is blended with person. As person is feature of present tense. category of tense is considered to be an immanent grammatical category . category of tense finds different interpretations with different scholars. category of aspect is linguistic representation of objective category of manner of action. It is realized through opposition Continuous::Non- Continuous.

Categories of verbal tense and aspect.
Most British scholars do not recognize existence of future. In traditional linguistics grammatical time is often represented as threeform category consisting of “linear” past, present and future forms. Those who deny existence of simple future in English consider future-in-the-past one of mood forms. Those who recognize existence of simple future argue that it is used in same situation when simple future is used, in subordinate clauses when principal clause contains past form. According to concept worked out by Prof. Blokh, there exist two tense categories in English. first one – category of primary time – expresses direct retrospective evaluation of time of process denoted. It is based upon opposition of past vs. present, past tense being its strong member. second one – category of “prospective time” – is based on opposition of “after-action” and “non-after-action”, marked member being future tense. category of aspect is linguistic representation of objective category of manner of action. There are some verbs in English that do not normally occur with progressive aspect, even in those contexts in which majority of verbs necessarily take progressive form.  distinction should be made between grammatical aspect and semantic aspectuality.

Actual division of sentence: rheme and theme.
Actual division of sentence, exposes informative perspective of sentence showing what immediate semantic contribution sentence parts make to total information conveyed by sentence. sentence can be divided into two sections – theme and rheme. theme is part of proposition that is being talked about . theme expresses starting point of communication. rheme expresses basic informative part of communication, emphasizing its contextually relevant centre. Between theme and rheme are positioned intermediary, transitional parts of actual division of various degrees of informative value . theme of actual division of sentence may or may not coincide with subject of sentence. rheme of actual division, may or may not coincide with predicate of sentence . In many sentences it is, in fact, something already familiar, as in some of our examples, especially with definite article. However, that need not always be case. There are sentences in which theme, too, is something mentioned for first time and yet it is not centre of predication. It is something about which statement is to be made. theme is here starting point of sentence, not its conclusion.

Category of verbal voice.
Category of voice is realized through opposition Active voice::Passive voice. passive is marked both in meaning and in form and active as unmarked both in meaning and in form. classification comprises 6 groups: 1. Verbs used only transitively; 2. Verbs with main transitive meaning; 3. Verbs of intransitive meaning and secondary transitive meaning.  4. Verbs of double nature,  5. Verbs that are never used in Passive Voice;  6. Verbs that realize their passive meaning only in special contexts. Three types of passive constructions : 1) direct primary passive; 2) indirect secondary passive; 3) prepositional tertiary passive. Some English verbs can admit only one object . When such an object becomes subject of passive construction, latter is called direct primary passiveindirect (secondary) passive is not infrequent in verb-phrases . Next come constructions with so-called prepositional or tertiary passive. subject of passive construction corresponds to prepositional object of active construction. This “detached” preposition retains its place after verb. Reflexive and Reciprocal voices. «Middle Voice» — verbs primarily transitive may develop an intransitive middle meaning»Reflexive Voicesubject is both agent and recipient of action at same time.

The parts of sentence.
Subject and predicate form backbone of sentence. They are interdependent and independent of any other sentence member . subject and predicate can form sentence on their own. subject performs two main functions: categorial and relative. categorial function of subject consists in naming possessor of predicative feature expressed by predicate. relative function of subject consists in its being original element in syntagmatic development of sentence. predicate can be expressed by numerous ways. predicate expresses predicative feature which characterized object expressed by subject, thus it realizes categorial function. Being link between subject and right environment of verb, it performs relative function. four types of predicates: — verbal; — nominal; — phraseological; — contaminated. Objects are divided into direct, indirect and prepositional. adverbial modifier  is secondary modifying part of sentence expressed by verb, verbal noun, an adjective, or an adverb, and characterises an action or property as to its quality or intensity, or to indicate way an action is done, time, place, cause, purpose, or condition, with which action or manifestation of quality is connected. Attribute denotes an attributive quality of an object expressed by noun.

Category of verbal mood.
Category of mood expresses relation of nominative content of sentence towards reality.  there are two moods – real and unreal. Real actions are expressed by indicative mood and unreal are expressed by oblique mood. Linguists distinguish various semantic varieties of oblique mood: Subjunctive I, Subjunctive II, Conditional, Suppositional. Subjunctive II and Conditional are used in conditional period. They have two forms – either homonymous to Past Indefinite and Future-in-the-Past, or to Past Perfect and Future-Perfect-in-the-Past. Subjunctive II and Conditional express same meaning and don’t exist independently, so they can be united into one mood.  Subjunctive I and Suppositional are on periphery of system. It has fallen out of system and is used in restricted contexts . Another indication that Subjunctive I and Suppositional are on periphery of system is that they are synonymous and interchangeable in structure. category of mood is represented by two oppositions: indicative mood and spective mood. indicative mood is basic mood of verb. spective mood, which includes traditional imperative and subjunctive mood, represents process as non-fact. imperative variety of spective mood is morphologically least developed mood: it is only expressed by bare infinitive form.

Infinitive as verbal form.
it combines features of verb with those of noun. It is form of verb which expresses process in general.  infinitive is treated as head-form of whole paradigm of verb. infinitive has two presentation forms: marked and unmarked. marked infinitive is distinguished by grammatical word-morpheme to. marked infinitive is an analytic grammatical form. other form of infinitive is unmarked; it is traditionally called bare infinitive. It is used in various analytic forms , with verbs of physical perception, with few modal phrases , ith relative why. infinitive combines properties of verb with those of noun, as result it serves as verbal name of process. It has grammatical categories of voice, aspect and temporal correlation. Consequently, categorial paradigm of infinitive includes eight forms: indefinite active, continuous active, perfect active, perfect continuous active; indefinite passive, continuous passive, perfect passive, perfect continuous passive. infinitive distinguishes categories of aspect, voice, and temporal correlation. Semantically and morphologically, infinitive is much more similar to verb than to noun: its verbal features outweigh its nounal features. Similar to noun, infinitive can be used as subject or part of subject, predicative, and attribute.

Compound sentence.
 Compound sentences are structures of co-ordination with two or more immediate constituents which are syntactically equivalent. process of coordination involves linking of structures of equal grammatical rank . coordinative conjunctions and correlatives serve to produce coordination by joining grammatically equivalent elements. formative words linking parts of compound sentence : 1) coordinative conjunctions, 2) conjunctive adverbs, 3) fixed prepositional phrases. Coordinate connectors can established different semantic relations between clauses. Coordinate sentence linkers can be grouped in following way: 1Copulative, connecting two members and their meanings, 2. Disjunctive, connecting two members but disconnecting their meaning, meaning in second member excluding that in first3. Adversative, connecting two members, but contrasting their meaning 4. Causal, adding an independent proposition explaining preceding statement, represented only by single conjunction for. 5. Illative, introducing an inference, conclusion, consequence, result: namely, therefore, on that account, consequently, accordingly, for that reason, so, then, hence, etc. 6. Explanatory, connecting words, phrases or sentences and introducing an explanation or particularisation



The sentence as unit of communication.
It is minimal unit of speech communication. difference between phrase and sentence is fundamental Predication establishes relation of named phenomena to actual life. general semantic category of modality is also defined by linguists as exposing connection between named objects and surrounding reality. An important structural feature of sentence is its entirety. So, sentence can be defined as an immediate integral unit used in speech communication, built up of words according to definite syntactic pattern and characterized by predication. Actualization of sentence content makes predicativity an inseparable property of every sentence. . Every sentence has an intonation pattern. 3. sentence occupies highest hierarchical position relative to other structural language units since final purpose of all structural language units is to build sentences. Unlike sentence, text does not have accurate and unambiguous structural characteristics.

Simple sentence: constituent structure, its problem.
Simple sentences are  classified into one-member and two-member. Onemember sentences do not contain two such separate parts; in these sentences there is only one main part  Prof. Blokh,  suggests that all simple sentences of English be divided into two-axis constructions and one-axis constructions. In two-axis sentence, subject axis and predicate axis are directly and explicitly expressed in outer structure. In one-axis sentence only one axis or its part is explicitly expressed, other one being non-presented in outer structure of sentence. One-member sentences are further divided into: a) nominal ; b) infinitival . Nominal sentences name person or thing.  main member of infinitival sentences is expressed by an infinitive. One-member sentences should be kept apart from elliptical sentences. In terms of traditional grammar, elliptical sentences are generally identified as sentences with subject or predicate missing. In terms of structure following types of elliptical sentences are singled out: a) omission of subject. b) omission of predicate in patterns with there is, there are. c) omission of auxiliary, copulative function verbsd) omission of subject and auxiliary verbe) omission of subject and copula-verb

The problem of Article.
If we treat article as word, we shall have to admit that English has only two articles — and a/an. But if we treat article as wordmorpheme, we shall have three articles — the, a/an, o. M.Blokh regards article as special type of grammatical auxiliary. Linguists are only agreed on function of article: article is determiner, or restricter. articles, do not form grammatical category. articles, they argue, do not belong to same lexeme, and they do not have meaning common to them: a/an has meaning of oneness, not found in the, which has demonstrative meaning. If we treat article as morpheme, then we shall have to set up grammatical category in noun, category of determination.  In this opposition definite article is strong member and indefinite article is weak member. same analysis can be extended to abstract and concrete countable nouns, e.g. courage: courage vs. courage. In contrast to countables, restricted uncountables are used with two indefinite articles: a/an and zero. role of indefinite article is to individuate subamount of entity which is presented here as an aspect of entity.

The Numerals: grammatical features, status, and its problems.
cardinal numerals are somewhat different from ordinal numerals .  Numerals denote either number or place in series. Numerals are invariable. both cardinal and ordinal numerals combine with following noun ; occasionally numeral follows noun . In sentence, numeral most usually is an attribute , but it can also be subject, predicative, and object: Grammatical category of numerals is further sub-divided into:
cardinal 2. ordinal 3. fractional  4. collective  5. distributive 6. multiplicative  7. adverbial 8. indefinite  9. technical  10. roman  numeral can perform grammatical function of determinative. Numerals in English are numbers used for counting . Количественные числительные от 13 до 19 — оканчиваются на суффикс — teen. Количественные числительные, обозначающие десятки, окончиваются на суффикс — ty. Порядковые числительные от 4 до 20 образуются от количественных при помощи суффикса — th. При образовании числительных, обозначающих десятки, прибавляется — eth и буква y меняется на букву i. Сложные числительные, например, двадцать второй (22), тридцать третий (33) и т.д. при образовании порядкового числительного изменяют форму только второго слова.

The problem of Word classes distinction.
parts of speech are classes of words, all members having certain characteristics in common which distinguish them from members of other classes. Principles of Classification Used by Prescriptive Grammarians divided into declinables  and indeclinables.  Non-structural descriptive grammarians adopted system of parts of speech by prescriptivists and elaborated it. Henry Sweet divided words into declinable and indeclinable. He speaks of three principles of classification: form, meaning, and function. Otto Jespersen gives preference to form. traditional classification was rejected by structural grammarians. Charles Fries rejected traditional principle of classification replacing it with methods of distributional analysis and substitution., distribution of word is position of word in sentence. He used three sentences called substitution frames. In modern linguistics, parts of speech are discriminated according to three criteria: semantic, formal and functional. semantic criterion — grammatical meaning of whole class of words. formal criterion — paradigmatic properties. functional criterion concerns syntactic function of words in sentence and their combinability. words of English language: notional and functional. notional parts of speech present open classes, functional parts of speech present closed classes..

The problem of closed and open word classes.
we can classify words of English language into notional and functional. To notional parts of speech belong noun, adjective, numeral, verb, and adverb. To functional parts of speech belong article, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, particle, modal words, and interjection. notional parts of speech present open classes while functional parts of speech present closed classes, division of language units into notion and function words reveals interrelation of lexical and grammatical types of meaning. In notional words lexical meaning is predominant. In function words grammatical meaning dominates. Some notional words develop meanings peculiar to function words Notional words constitute bulk of existing word stock while function words constitute smaller group of words. Although number of function words is limited (there are only about 50 of them in Modern English), they are most frequently used units.

Syntax of word-combination. (word-combination = phrase)
phrase is any syntactically organized group including either notional words , or both notional and functional words connected with any of existent types of syntactic connection. phrase can be defined as syntactically organized group of words of any morphological composition based on any type of syntactic connection. General characteristics of phrase are: 1) phrase is means of naming some phenomena or processes, just as word is. As naming unit it differs from compound word because number of constituents in word-group corresponds to number of different denotates . 2) Each component of word-group can undergo grammatical changes without destroying identity of whole unit.  3) word-group is dependent syntactic unit, it is not communicative unit and has no intonation of its ownHowever, according to some scholars, eg. Yu. S. Maslov, phrase can be sentence or part of sentence while sentence can be realized as phrase, group of interconnected phrases and separate word.

The simple and complex subordinate word-combinations.
Subordination: subordinate phrases are structures in which one of members is syntactically leading element of phrase. This dominating element is called head-word, or kernel, and can be expressed by different parts of speech. two basic types of dominational connection are bilateral (reciprocal, two-way) domination and monolateral (one-way) domination. Bilateral domination is realised in predicative con-nection of words, while monolateral domination is realised in completive connection of words. Dominational connection is achieved by different forms of word (categorial agreement, government), connective words (prepositions, i. e. prepositional government), word-order. . Dominational connection, as different from equipotent connection, is effected in such way that one of constituents of combination is principal (dominating) and other is subordinate (dominated). principal element is commonly called «kernel», «kernel element», or «headword»; subordinate element, respectively, «adjunct», «adjunct-word», «expansion».

Modal verbs and modal words.
The modal word, expresses attitude of speaker to reflected situation and its parts. Modal words stand in special relation to sentence. They are not sentence members, Academician Shcherba states that there are some words that do not belong to any part of speech.  There are nine modal verbs in Modern English: must, can/could, may/might, shall/should, will/would, dare, need, ought and let. large variety of their use is one of most striking aspects of present-day English grammar.
On different linguistic occasions modal verb may perform three different functions: a) it may be used in its original sense, b) it may do duty of purely auxiliary in analytical verbal forms correlated with corresponding simple ones within limits of given grammatical category , c) it may weaken its lexical meaning when used in modal phrases expressing supposition, certainty or uncertainty as to action expressed by notional verb. Modal verbs may function as a) «fully lexical» verbs expressing ability, possibility, permission, power, admonition, duty, obligation, need, will or readiness to do something associated with activity of subject, b) modal auxiliaries of weakened predication:

Analytism as syntactical technique.
As for analytical forms which are so typical of modern English that they have long made this language into «canonised» representative of lingual analytism, they deserve some special comment on their substance.
The traditional view of analytical morphological form recognises two lexemic parts in it, stating that it presents combination of an auxiliary word with basic word.  Its opposite is seen in analytical degrees of comparison which, according to cited interpretation, come very near to free combinations of words by their lack of «idiomatism» in above sense  The scientific achievement of study of «idiomatic» analytism in different languages is essential and indisputable. Proceeding from this fundamental principle, it can hardly stand to reason to exclude «unidiomatic» grammatical combinations  from system of analytical expression as such. they should be regarded as an integral part of this system, in which, provision granted, gradation of idiomatism is to be recognised. In this case, such analytical forms should also be discriminated as analytical infinitive , analytical verbal person , analytical degrees of comparison of both positive and negative varieties , as well as some other, still more unconventional form-types.

Primary and secondary predication.
Predication  – syntagmatic relations of interdependence. Predication may be of two kinds – primary (sentence level) and secondary. Primary predication is observed between subject and predicate of sentence while secondary predication is observed between non-finite forms of verb and nominal elements within sentence. Secondary predication serves basis for gerundial, infinitive and participial word-groups verbid complexes are not self-dependent in predicative sense. They normally exist only as part of sentences built up by genuine, primary predicative constructions that have finite verb as their core. In every sentence there is bound to be predication. In usual two-member sentence predication is between subject and predicate. However, there are also sentences which contain one more predication, which is not between subject and predicate of sentence. This predication may conveniently be termed secondary predication. In Modern English there are several ways of expressing secondary predication. One of them is what is frequently termed complex object.

Communicative types of sentence, problems of classification.
When discussing simple sentences we had to deal with communication types: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences. declarative sentence expresses statement, either affirmative or negative, and as such stands in systemic syntagmatic correlation with listener’s responding signals of attention, of appraisal  of fellow-feeling. imperative sentence expresses inducement, , imperative sentence is situationally connected with corresponding «action response»
The interrogative sentence expresses question, i.e. request for information wanted by speaker from listener. interrogative sentence is naturally connected with an answer, forming together with it question-answer dialogue unity. in process of actual communication interrogative communicative purpose,   may sporadically not be fulfilled.
In Fries’s system, as universal speech unit subjected to communicative analysis was chosen not immediately sentence, but an utterance unit understood as continuous chunk of talk by one speaker in dialogue. sentence was then defined as minimum free utterance.
Alongside of three cardinal communicative sentence-types, another type of sentences is recognised in theory of syntax, exclamatory sentence. In modern linguistics it has been demonstrated that exclamatory sentences do not possess any complete set of qualities that could place them on one and same level with three cardinal communicative types of sentences.

Problems of ing-forms and ed-forms.
gerund is originally verbal noun in –ing. general combinability of gerund, like that of infinitive, is dual, sharing some features with verb, and some features with noun. gerund distinguishes categories of voice and temporal correlation gerund can be modified by noun in genitive case or in common case, which,  turn into possessive and objective forms, standard form is form with noun in genitive case or with possessive pronoun. Unlike noun, gerund cannot be used in plural; it cannot be preceded by article ; it cannot be determined by adjective. Like noun, gerund can be used as subject, object, predicative, and attribute. past participle is non-finite form of verb which combines properties of verb with those of adjective, serving as qualifying processual name. Unlike present participle, it has no paradigm of its own.. Its adjectival feature is its attributive function

Paradigm of Simple sentence.
The essence of their paradigmatic status in light of syntactic interpretation consists in fact that lists of functional words may be regarded as paradigmatic series themselves — which, are grammatical constituents of higher paradigmatic series on level of phrases and especially sentences.
functional words, are proved to be exposers of various syntactic categories
The words were obscure, but she understood uneasiness that produced them.> words were obscure, weren’t they? How then could she understand uneasiness that produced them?> Or perhaps words were not too obscure, after all? Or, conversely, she didn’t understand uneasiness that produced them?> But words were obscure. How obscure they were! Still she did understand uneasiness that produced them. Etc.
This role of functional words which are identified not by their morphemic composition, but by their semantico-syntactic features in reference to embedding constructions, is exposed on broad linguistic basis within framework of theory of paradigmatic syntax (see further).


The Adjective: notion, classification, categories, and function.
The adjective expresses property of an entity. Adjectives are characteristically stative. Adjectives can often function as heads of noun phrases. As such, they do not inflect for number and for genitive case and must take definite determiner. Adjective can function as verbless clause All adjectives are traditionally divided into two large subclasses: qualitative and relative. measure of quality can be estimated as high or low, adequate or inadequate, sufficient or insufficient, optimal or excessive. ability of an adjective to form degrees of comparison is taken as formal sign of its qualitative character In actual speech described principle of distinction is not strictly observed. Blokh suggests that distinction be based on evaluative function of adjectives. all adjective functions may be grammatically divided into «evaluative» and  «specificative». One and same adjective, irrespective of its being «relative» or «qualitative», can be used either in evaluative function or in specificative function. Adjectives that characterize referent of noun directly are termed inherent, those that do not are termed non-inherent. Most adjectives are inherent, and it is especially uncommon for dynamic adjectives to be other than inherent. category of comparison is constituted by opposition of three forms of adjective: positive, comparative, and superlative. Some grammarians have expressed view that there are only two degrees of comparison.

The Adjective: problems of words of conditional category and problems of degrees of comparison.
There is class of words in English with following morphological, semantic and syntactic characteristics: 1) words of this type denote “states” while adjectives denote “qualities”; 2) words of this type may be characterized by prefix a- 3) words of this type do not possess category of degrees of comparison; 4) words of this type are used predicatively only. these words are regarded by some grammarians as separate part of speech which has been variously referred to as category of state words, adlinks, and statives  traditional view of stative, which separates temporary adjectives from other adjectives, does not seem to be convincing: temporary adjectives are part and parcel of adjective class as whole. But features examined are not sufficient for distinction of category of state within adjective category of comparison is constituted by opposition of three forms of adjective: positive, comparative, and superlative. Some grammarians have expressed view that there are only two degrees of comparison. There are three ways of forming degrees of comparison: synthetic, analytic, and suppletive. synthetic way of forming degrees of comparison is by inflections —er, -est; analytic way, by placing more and most before adjective. synthetic way is generally used with monosyllabic adjectives and dissyllabic adjectives ending in -y, -ow, -er, -le and those which have stress on last syllable. To analytic forms of comparison Blokh also attributes less/least combinations. He calls them forms of reverse comparison.

Semi-compound sentence
The semi-compound sentence is semi-composite sentence built up on principle of coordination. from formal point of view, sentence possessing coordinated notional parts of immediately sentential reference  is to be treated as semi-compound. But different structural types of syntactic coordination even of direct sentential reference display very different implications as regards semi-compounding composition of sentences. Substantially involved in expression of semi-compounding is combination of two subjects relating to one predicate when subjects are discontinuously positioned, so that first starts utterance, while second concludes it with some kind of process-referred introduction. However, if we turn our attention to genuine coordinations of predicates, both verbal and nominal, we shall immediately be convinced of each element of group presenting its own predicative centre relating to on sbject axis of sentence, thereby forming strictly compounding fusion of predicative lines expressed. This fact is so trivially clear that it does not seem to require special demonstration.

The Adverb: notion, classification, and categories; problem of independence.
Adverb is usually defined as word expressing either property of an action, or property of another property, or circumstances in which an action occurs. Adverbs are divided into qualitative, quantitative and circumstantial. Qualitative adverbs express immediate, inherently non-graded qualities of actions and other qualities. Quantitative adverbs are specific lexical units of semi-functional nature expressing quality measure, or gradational evaluation of qualities: 1. of high degree 2. of excessive degree also belonging to broader subclass of intensifiers:. 3. of unexpected degree: 4. of moderate degree:. 5. of low degree:  6. of approximate degree . 7. of optimal degree:  8. of inadequate degree . 9. of under-degree. qualitative adverbs are subdivided into qualitative adverbs of full notional value and degree adverbs. Circumstantial adverbs are also divided into notional and functional. functional circumstantial adverbs are words of pronominal nature. They include numerical adverbs, adverbs of time, place, manner, cause, consequence. Notional circumstantial adverbs include two basic sets: adverbs of time and adverbs of place Adverbs can be divided into evaluative and specificative, connected with categorial expression of comparison. As to their word-building structure adverbs may be non-derived, or simple and derived We can also distinguish composite forms and phrasal forms of adverb. prolific source of adverbs is adjective:


Complex sentence: principle sentence.
Complex sentences are structures of subordination with two or more immediate constituents which are not syntactically equivalent. In simplest case, that of binary structure, one of them is principal clause to which other is joined as subordinate. latter stands in relation of adjunct to principal clause and is beneath principal clause in rank. In complex sentences, traditionally, main and subordinate clause are singled out Like all independent clauses, main clause must contain tensed verb and subject. In complex sentences, independent clause is main clause. Main clauses do not have fixed place in order of complex sentences—they may begin sentence, come in middle, or end sentence. independent clause is main idea of sentence. It is not dependent on another clause for meaning and context.
Avoid using description that independent clause can «stand by itself» or «makes sense by itself.»Many dependent clauses, when removed from context of sentence, make sense on their own. Nonetheless, they are dependent on rest of sentence for meaning and should not be evaluated outside of sentence.

Grammatical features of small classes of words: Particle, Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection.
Particles denote subjective shades of meaning introduced by speaker or writer and serving to emphasise or limit some point in what he says. Particles are invariable. Particles may combine with practically every part of speech, usually preceding it, but occasionally following it Particles never are separate part of sentence. Interjections express feelings. They are not names of feelings but immediate expression of them. Some interjections represent noises, etc. Interjections are invariable. Interjections usually do not enter into phrases. In sentence an interjection forms kind of parenthesis. An interjection may also be sentence in itself. meaning of prepositions is obviously that of relations between things and phenomena. Prepositions are invariable. Prepositions enter into phrases in which they are preceded by noun, adjective, numeral, stative, verb or adverb, and followed by noun, adjective, numeral or pronoun. In sentence preposition never is separate part of it. Conjunctions express connections between things and phenomena. Conjunctions are invariable. They connect any two words, phrases or clauses. In sentence, conjunctions are never special part of it.

The Pronoun: grammatical features, classification, and its problem.
Meaning of pronoun as separate part of speech is somewhat difficult to define. In fact, some pronouns share essential peculiarities of nouns, while others have much in common with adjectives. This made some scholars think that pronouns were not separate part of speech at all and should be distributed between nouns and adjectives. However, this view proved untenable and entailed insurmountable difficulties. Hence it has proved necessary to find definition of specific meaning of pronouns, distinguishing 21 them from both nouns and adjectives. From this angle meaning of pronouns as part of speech can be stated as follows: pronouns point to things and properties without naming them. Form. As far as form goes pronouns fall into different types. Some of them have category of number, while others have no such category. Again, some pronouns have category of case, while others have none. Some pronouns combine with verbs, while others can also combine with following noun. In sentence, some pronouns may be subject or object, while others are attribute. Pronouns can be predicatives.

Semi-complex sentence
The semi-complex sentence is semi-composite sentence built up on principle of subordination. It is derived from minimum two base sentences, one matrix and one insert. sentences based on semi-predicative linear expansion fall into those of attributive complication, adverbial complication, and nominal-phrase complication. Each subtype is related to definite complex sentence as its explicit structural pro-totype. Semi-complex sentences of subject-sharing are built up by means of two base sentences overlapping round common subject.
From syntagmatic point of view, predicate of these sentences forms structure of «double predicate”. In position of predicative of construction different categorial classes of words are used with their respective specific meanings and implications.
At same time construction gives informative prominence not to its dominant, but to complicator, and corresponds to pleni-complex sentence featuring complicator event in principal clause placed in post-position. In subject-sharing semi-composites with reflexivised dominant verbs of intense action idea of change is rendered.
He spoke himself hoarse. > As he spoke he became hoarse. Apart from described types of subject-sharing sentences there is variety of them featuring dominant verb in passive.
These sentences have active counterparts as their paradigmatic deri-vation bases which we analyse below as semi-complex sentences of ob-ject sharing.

Allo-emic theory of Morphology
When studying morphemes, we should distinguish morphemes as generalized lingual units from their concrete manifestations, or variants in specific textual environments; variants of morphemes are called “allo-morphs”.
Initially, so-called allo-emic theory was developed in phonetics: in phonetics, phonemes, as generalized, invariant phonological units, are distinguished from their concrete realizations, allophones. For example, one phoneme is pronounced in different way in different environments, cf.: you [ju:] — you know [ju]; in Russian, vowels are also pronounced in different way in stressed and unstressed syllables, cf.: дом — домой. same applies to morpheme, which is generalized unit, an invariant, and may be represented by different variants, allo-morphs, in different textual environments. For example, morpheme of plural, -(e)s, sounds differently after voiceless consonants (bats), voiced consonants and vowels (rooms), and after fricative and sibilant consonants (clashes). So, [s], [z], [iz], which are united by same meaning (the grammatical meaning of plural), are allo-morphs of same morpheme, which is represented as -(e)s in written speech.
The allo-morphs of plural morpheme -(e)s [s], [z], [iz] stand in phonemic complementary distribution; allo-morph –en, as in oxen, stands in morphemic complementary distribution with other allo-morphs of plural morpheme.

Approaches to language: Traditional, Cognitive, Functional.
cognitive approach deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving. By emphasizing mental processes, it places itself in opposition to behaviorism, which largely ignores mental processes. Today, cognitive approach has overtaken behaviorism in terms of popularity, and is one of dominant approaches in contemporary psychology. functional approach to language is based on three main functions of language: use of language to develop understandings about world and ourselves; its use for interacting with others; and its use to create and interpret texts. functional approach is to be retained as basis for revised syllabus and support documents. communicative approach is theory that language is communication.

  1.    Therefore final aim of CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) is communicative competence. Principles: Learners learn through using it to communicate
  2. Authentic and meaningful communication should be goal of classroom activities
  3. Fluency is an important dimension of communication
  4. Communication involves integration of different language skills
  5. Learning is process of creative construction and involves trial and error

Paradigmatic aspect in grammar
In contemporary modern linguistics paradigmatic structur-ing of lingual connections and dependencies has penetrated into would-be «purely syntagmatic» sphere of sentence. paradigmatic approach to this element of rendering communi-cative information,  marked new stage in development of science of language. Paradigmatics finds its essential expression in system of oppositions making corresponding meaningful categories. Syntactic oppositions are realised by corre-lated sentence patterns, observable relations between which can be described as «transformations. These transitions, being oppositional, at same time disclose derivational connections of sentence-patterns. But modern theory, exposing them explicitly, has made cardinal step for-ward in so far as it has interpreted them as regular derivation stages comparable to categorial form-making processes in mor-phology and word-building. And it is on these lines that initial, basic element of syn-tactic derivation has been found. This element is known by different names, such as «basic syntactic pattern», «structural sentence scheme», «elementary sentence model», «base sentence», though as handiest in linguistic use should be considered «kernel sentence» due to its termino-logical flexibility combined with natural individualising force.

Transformational grammar; Generative Grammar
In linguistics, transformational grammar or transformational-generative grammar is generative grammar, especially of natural language, that has been developed in Chomskyan tradition. Much current research in transformational grammar is inspired by Chomsky’s Minimalist Program. In theoretical linguistics, generative grammar refers to particular approach to study of syntax. generative grammar of language attempts to give set of rules that will correctly predict which combinations of words will form grammatical sentences. In most approaches to generative grammar, rules will also predict morphology of sentence. Generative grammar originates in work of Noam Chomsky, beginning in late 1950s. Early versions of Chomsky’s theory were called transformational grammar, and this term is still used as collective term that includes his subsequent theories. There are number of competing versions of generative grammar currently practiced within linguistics. Chomsky has argued that many of properties of generative grammar arise from an «innate» universal grammar. Most versions of generative grammar characterize sentences as either grammatically correct or not. rules of generative grammar typically function as an algorithm to predict grammaticality as discrete  result.


Grammatical valency.
Grammatical valency represents word’s ability to be syntactically situated and to be combined with appropriate parts of sentence.
Lexical valency is word’s ability to be combined with other words semantically in grammatical valency. Grammatical valency is aptness of word to appear in specific grammatical (or rather syntactic) structures. minimal grammatical context in which words are used when brought together to form word-groups is usually described as pattern of word-groups. For instance, verb to offer can be followed by infinitive (to offer to do smth.) and noun (to offer cup of tea). verb to suggest can be followed by gerund (to suggest doing smth.) and noun (to suggest an idea). grammatical valency of these verbs is different.
The adjectives clever and intelligent are seen to possess different grammatical valency as clever can be used in word-groups having pattern: adjective + preposition ‘at’ + noun (clever at mathematics), whereas intelligent can never be found in exactly same word-group pattern.
The grammatical valency of correlated words in different languages is not identical, cf.: in English to influence person, decision, choice (verb + noun) — in Russian влиять на человека, на решение, на выбор (verb + preposition + noun).

Morphology and syntax as two main points of theoretical grammar
The subject matter of morphology is grammatical classes and groups of words, their grammatical categories and systems of forms (para-digms) in which these categories actually exist.
Syntax examines ways in which words may be combined and relationships that exist between words in combination. Morphology is inadequate alone. Syntax alone will not do either partly because there are borderline word-forms and phrases not in-disputably assigned to any class.
It seems practical to distinguish between paradigmatic and syntag-matic study of morphology. In importance morphology is far inferior to syntax in Modern English. Of words in Modern English not over one fourth possess any distinctive mor-phological form, others being of common neutral morphological character, and their syntax or context alone can determine their number, case or tense. structure of language is to large extent conditioned by its system of formal oppositions proceeding from which we generally identify morphological classes of words.
The grammar of any natural language is bilateral unity of form and content. content of grammar appears to be generalised in its categorial expression. Organically related to vocabulary, grammar always retains its underlying categories.

Syntax of text.
Syntactic description may begin with «discourse» analysis as its start-ing point.
syntax is described as «textlinguistics» concerned pri-marily with grammatical organisation and semantic aspects of supra-phrasal unities.
A supra-phrasal unity usually functioning as communicative whole consists of number of semantically related sentences. In writing it corre-sponds to «paragraph», in spoken language this semantic unity is signalled by pausation.
A «paragraph» is traditional term used in manuscripts and printing to indicate distinct subdivision of discourse, chapter, or writing.
As logical category paragraph is characterised by coherence and relative unity of ideas expressed, as linguistic category it is com-municative unit marked off by such formal linguistic means as intonation and pauses of various lengths.
A supra-phrasal unit is analysed into sentences and phrases as interde-pendent units, value of which results from simultaneous presence of others.
Paragraphs in pictorial and emotive prose break up narrative not only to facilitate understanding but also for emphasis.
Discourse analysis then carries our attention to actual division of sentences making up supra-phrasal unity, i.e. their communicative function in given situation, in other words, «functional sentence per-spective», which is, in fact, main category on this level of linguistic analysis.

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